Double scull

A double scull is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for two persons who propel the boat by sculling with two oars, one in each hand.[1][dead link] Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat. Double sculls is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and the Olympics.[2] In contrast to the combination of the coxed pair, in which the distribution of the riggers means the forces are staggered alternately along the boat, the symmetrical forces in sculling make the boat more efficient and so the double scull is faster than the coxless pair.[3] A double sculling skiff has a similar layout to a double scull and is rowed in a similar way but usually has a cox as well as two rowers. It is clinker built with fixed seats and thole pins and can be skiffed for leisure purposes or for the sport of skiff racing. Composite materials (also called composition materials or shortened to composites) are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Typical engineered composite materials include: Composite building materials such as cements, concrete Reinforced plastics such as fiber-reinforced

olymer Metal Composites Ceramic Composites (composite ceramic and metal matrices) Composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges and structures such as boat hulls, race car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, and storage tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments. A coxed pair is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for two persons who propel the boat with sweep oars and is steered by a coxswain. The crew consists of two rowers, each having one oar, and a cox. One rower is on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and other is on the bow side (rower's lefthand side).[1] The cox steers the boat using a rudder and may be seated at the stern of the boat where there is a view of the crew or in the bow (known as a bowloader). With a bowloader, amplification is needed to communicate with the crew which is sitting behind, but the cox has a better view of the course and the weight distribution may help the boat go faster. When there is no cox, the boat is referred to as a "coxless pair". Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Pairs have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to help the rudder. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. "Coxed pair" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation. It was one of the original events in the Olympics but was dropped in 1992.

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