A total of 59 nations sent athletes. Fourteen made their first official appearance: British Guiana (now Guyana), Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. It was the first time that the Philippines, India and Pakistan competed as independent nations at the Olympic Games. Germany and Japan, both under Allied military occupations, were not allowed to send athletes to the games. German forced labour was used for the construction of the facilities. Italy, although originally an Axis power, defected to the Allies in 1943 following Benito Mussolini being deposed, and was allowed to send athletes. The Soviet Union was invited but they chose not to send any athletes. The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed. British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. Guiana was discoverd by Sir Walter Raleigh, an English explorer. The area was originally settled by the Dutch at the start of the 17th century as the colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice. These three colonies were captured by the British in 1796; they were returned to the (Dutch) Batavian Republic in 1802, but were again captured by British forces a year later and were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814, and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colony's capital was at Georgetown (known as Stabroek prior to 1812). Guyana went on to become independent of the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966. Forced labour of Germans after World War II refers to the Allied use of German civilians and captured soldiers for forced
labor in years following World War II (and in some cases much longer). The topic of using Germans as forced labour for reparations was first broached at the Tehran conference in 1943, where Soviet premier Joseph Stalin demanded 4,000,000 German workers. Forced labour was also included in the Morgenthau Plan draft from September 1944, and was included in the final protocol of the Yalta conference in January 1945, where it was sanctioned by UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In March 1947, an estimated 4,000,000 Germans were being used as forced labour. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Italian pronunciation: [be?nito musso?lini]; 29 July 1883 Ц 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party, ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943. Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism. Mussolini was Dictator of Italy from 1930 to 1943, after he destroyed all political opposition through his secret police and outlawed labor strikes. Originally a member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and editor of the Avanti! from 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I. Mussolini denounced the PSI and joined the group of left politicians who supported Italian intervention against Austria-Hungary that held Italian-populated lands in its territories. He founded the Fascist movement during the conflict. Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he became the 27th Prime Minister of Italy and began using the title Il Duce by 1925, within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state.